GPS

Global Psychotrauma Screen

The GPS in short

  • The Global Psychotrauma Screen (GPS) is a screening instrument designed to identify reactions to a severe stressor or potentially traumatic event (17 yes/no questions)

  • It also assesses risk or protective factors known to influence the course of symptoms (5 yes/no questions).

  • The GPS begins with questions about the event or experience.

  • It can be used in different settings such as in primary care, after disaster, or in clinical practice.

  • The app provides direct feedback on the scores.

  • Scoring positive above the cutoff or on certain domains (e.g. of PTSD, anxiety or depression - see below) may require more detailed follow assessments, e.g. with structured interviews for specific disorders.

 
 

Take the GPS

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Background and aims

The GPS was developed by an international group of experts representing traumatic stress societies worldwide, called the Global Collaboration on Traumatic Stress (Olff et al., 2020; Schnyder et al., 2017), GC Theme 1 group, with the aim to address the need for a brief instrument that would tap the potential wide range of acute or long term consequences of  stressful or potentially trauma events, broader than PTSD symptoms alone (see domains below). It can be applied to tap the consequences of all types of events including more recent ones. 

Output

The GPS consists of 17 symptom items, and 5 risk/protective factor questions, each to be answered in a yes/no format. The GPS is currently available in 23 languages:  

The English version has been translated into the languages listed above following the translation and cultural adaptation process by Sousa and Rojjanasrirat (2011).

The GPS app

The underlined languages above are available through the GPS app  to easily fill out the GPS  and receive immediate feedback.  We aim to include the other languages as well, for now available upon request through the form on this page.

In addition to the 22 yes/no items the app also asks about the type of event and includes 1 items on functioning.
 

Domains

The GPS was constructed by 1) reaching consensus on the domains, including trauma related problems, but also risk and protective factors. 2) Selecting scales or items -as much as possible- from existing valid and reliable measures that were available without barriers to access (see also Olff et al., 2020).

The domains are:

  • PTSD

  • Complex PTSD

  • Anxiety

  • Depression

  • Sleep problems

  • Self-injurious behavior

  • Dissociation

  • Other physical, emotional or social problems

  • Substance abuse

  • Other stressful events

  • Childhood trauma

  • History of mental illness

  • Social support

  • Psychological resilience

Norm scores and psychometric properties

Ongoing research suggests good internal reliability as well as concurrent validity with instruments measuring a range of psychotrauma related symptom domains (Olff et al., 2020; Oe et al., 2020; Rossi et al., 2020; Rossi et al., under review; Frewen et al., under review, and several others in prep). 

Cross cultural data are being collected here.

Using GPS

Researchers or clinicians who wish to use the GPS or to further translate the GPS in another language are requested to fill out the form below.

We welcome studies that gather norm data in a broad variety of individuals (trauma-exposed and non-exposed, females/males, young and old, clinical samples and healthy samples, civilians and high-risk professions such as police, military, health care professionals, cross-sectional and prospective samples etc.) across the world. If feasible, we recommend repeated assessments. Demographic and trauma or life events (e.g. LEC-5) measures should be included in order to describe the study sample.

Child and Adolescent versions of the Global Psychotrauma Screen (GPS)

Project leader: Emma Grace

Project Group: Emma Grace, Li Wang, Nadejda Semenova, Atle Dyregrov, and Miranda Olff

We are looking for collaborators on this project who can help us adapt and validate the GPS Child and Adolescent versions cross-nationally, analyze data, and work on a joint publication of the results, please contact Project Leader Emma Grace.

 

Aims and method

Recent research indicates that children and adolescents are underrepresented in the assessment and treatment for psychological trauma. This project group seeks to advance knowledge and evidence about the impact of adverse life events on child and adolescent population, and to provide free, valid and reliable screening tools for traumatic symptoms. The aim of the GPS Child and Adolescent Project is to adapt the GPS adult version (Olff et al., 2020) for children and adolescents.

We have initially revised the GPS adult version for children and adolescents in American English. Using the expert consensus approach, we have completed four rounds of revisions on each child and adolescent versions. The adolescent version has then been translated into Chinese, Russian, and Norwegian, while considering local contexts in each country. The next steps are to test the child and adolescent versions for comprehension and to ensure that children and adolescents can understand the GPS items. After that, the pilot testing will be completed to screen for traumatic symptoms and the validation study will be launched.

We invite researchers from around the world who are interested in translating, adapting, and validating the GPS Child and Adolescent versions in their countries to join the project.

 

Please register here to receive scoring information and further updates

 

GPS

GPS project group

PI: Miranda Olff  (email: m.olff-AT- amsterdamumc.nl)

Dean Ajdukovic, Anne Bakker, Doug Brewer, Marylene Cloitre, Grete Dyb, Paul Frewen, Emma Grace, Ali Haghi, Juli Lanza, Brigitte Lueger Schuester, Gladys Mwiti, Misari Oe, Janaina Pinto, Indira Primasari, Rita Rosner, Carolina Salgado, Ingo Schaefer,  Yahya Salimi, Julia Schellong, Ueli Schnyder, Jun Shigemura, Kitty Wu.

 

References

Oe, M., Kobayashi, Y., Ishida, T., Chiba, H., Matsuoka, M., Kakuma, T., Frewen, P. & Olff, M. (2020). Screening for psychotrauma related symptoms: Japanese translation and pilot testing of the Global Psychotrauma Screen.  European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11(1), doi 10.1080/20008198.2020.1810893.

 

Olff, M., Bakker, A.,  Frewen, P., Aakvaag, H., Ajdukovic, D., Brewer, D., Elmore Borbon, D.L., Cloitre, M., Hyland, P., Kassam-Adams, N., Knefel, M., Lanza, J.A., Lueger-Schuster, B., Nickerson, A., Oe, M., Pfaltz, M.C., Salgado, C., Seedat, S., Wagner, A.,  Schnyder, U. & Global Collaboration on Traumatic Stress (GC-TS) (2020). Screening for consequences of trauma – an update on the global collaboration on traumatic stress. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11(1), 1752504  https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2020.1752504

Rossi, R., Socci, V., Pacitti, F., Di Lorenzo, G., Di Marco, A.,  Siracusano, A., Rossi, Alessandro (2020). Mental Health Outcomes Among Frontline and Second-Line Health CareWorkers During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic in Italy. JAMA Network Open. 2020;3(5):e2010185. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.10185 

Schnyder, U., Schafer, I., Aakvaag, H. F., Ajdukovic, D., Bakker, A., Bisson, J.I., Brewer, D., Cloitre, M., Dyb, G.A., Frewen,P., Lanza, J., Le Brocque, R., Lueger-Schuster, B., Mwiti, G.K., Oe, M., Rosner, R., Schellong, J., Shigemura, J., Wu, K., & Olff, M. (2017). The global collaboration on traumatic stress. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 8,1 .https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2017.1403257

Sousa, V.D. &  Rojjanasrirat, W. (2011). Translation, adaptation and validation of instruments or scales for use in cross-cultural health care research: a clear and user-friendly guideline. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 , 268–274

© 2019 by Global Collaboration on Traumatic Stress